A graphic guide to hate speech




Highly Recommended



My Google+ collection contains a curated set of commentaries that are worth reading.



This list is arranged with the more accessible and general on top and the more technical and detailed below.

  1. Hate Speech: A 5-Point Test for Journalists. Ethical Journalism Network, 2015. Practical tips drawn from the Rabat Plan of Action.
  2. Don’t Feed the Trolls. Rebecca MacKinnon and Ethan Zuckerman on how to deal with online hate.
  3. Camden Principles on Freedom of Expression and Equality. Article 19, 2009. A concise statement of core principles around the regulation of incitement.
  4. Hate Speech Explained: A Toolkit. Article 19, 2015. An 88-page guide with clear definitions and recommended legal and civic responses.
  5. The Impact of Blasphemy Laws on Human Rights. Freedom House, 2010. A study of Algeria, Egypt, Greece, Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan and Poland.
  6. Rabat Plan of Action. Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, 2012. A landmark document with policy recommendations.
  7. Manual on Hate Speech. Council of Europe, 2009. A 104-page distillation of European Court of Human Rights’ positions on hate speech.
  8. Article 19: Freedoms of Opinion and Expression. UN Human Rights Committee General Comment No. 34. Definitive interpretation of free speech vs incitement.


  • Martha Nussbaum, author of The New Religious Intolerance: Overcoming the Politics of Fear. (1hr33min) (10min)
  • Amartya Sen, author of Identity and Violence. (58min)
  • Jeremy Waldron, author of The Harm in Hate Speech. (6min) (1hr 14min)


International bodies

  • OHCHR expert workshops on the prohibition of incitement to national, racial or religious hatred – Expert workshop on Asia-Pacific, 6-7 July 2011, Bangkok. Joint submission by  Heiner Bielefeldt, Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief; Frank La Rue, Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression; and Githu Muigai, Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance. Download PDF.
  • European Commission against Racism and Intolerance, “The use of racist, antisemitic and xenophobic elements in political discourse: High-level panel meeting
    on the occasion of the International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, 21 March 2005”, 2005  Download PDF.
  • European Commission against Racism and Intolerance, “Proceedings of Expert Seminar: Combating Racism while Respecting Freedom of Expression, 16-17 November 2006”, 2006. Download PDF.
  • Council of Europe, “Living Together: Combining Diversity and Freedom in 21st Century Europe. Report of the Group of Eminent Persons of the Council of Europe”, 2011. Download PDF or Visit site.

Case studies

  • Article 19, “Broadcasting Genocide: Censorship, Propaganda and State-Sponsored Violence in Rwanda 1990-1994”, 1996. Download PDF.
  • Owen M. Fiss, “The Supreme Court and the Problem of Hate Speech”, 1996. Download PDF.

Media ethics

  • Verica Rupar, Getting the Facts Right: Reporting Ethnicity & Religion, Media Diversity Institute, Article 19 and International Federation of Journalists, 2012. Visit site.
  • Kelly McBride, “How to Report on Quran Burning and Other Hate Speech,” Everyday Ethics, September 9, 2010. Visit site.
  • Geoff Elliott, Reporting Diversity: How Journalists Can Contribute to Community Cohesion, Society of Editors and Media Trust, 2005. Download PDF.
  • Debra L. Mason, ed., Reporting on Religion: A Primer on Journalism’s Best Beat, Westerville, Ohio: Religion Newswriters Association, 2006. Download PDF.
  • Diversity: Best Practices. A Handbook for Journalism and Mass Communications Educators, Accrediting Council on Education in Journalism and Mass Communications, 2003. Download PDF.

Organisations, portals

  • Article 19. Freedom of expression NGO. Visit site.
  • UK Media Diversity Institute. Visit site.
  • US Religion Newswriters Association. Visit site.
  • International Network Against Cyberhate. Visit site.
  • Global Experts: A network of opinion leaders to help journalists interpret cross-cultural crises. Visit site.
  • Hatebase. Hate speech database, designed to help predict regional violence. Visit site.
  • Free Speech Debate: A project of Oxford University’s Dahrendorf Programme for the Study of Freedom, with discussions and case studies on respecting believers/beliefs. Visit site.


  • Zotero-powered bibliography. Visit site and click on “Group Library”.